Sustainable practices in biogas production
Luostarinen, Sari; Tampio, Elina; Lehtoranta, Suvi; Valve, Helena; Laakso, Johanna; Rasi, Saija; Pyykkönen, Ville; Markkanen, Jukka; Heikkinen, Jaakko; Haapala, Hannu; Winquist, Erika; Lång, Kristiina; Vikki, Karetta; Silfver, Tarja (2023-09-26)
Julkaisusarja:Publications of the Government´s analysis, assessment and research activities 2023:53
Julkaisun pysyvä osoite onhttp://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-383-075-2
At its best, biogas production is a solution that supports circular economy, climate goals, water and sea protection, security of supply, self-sufficiency, and rural vitality. Achieving the goals, however, requires minimization of emissions in the entire production chain, from feed materials to the use of end products. The implementation of biogas plants and the practices of operation and maintenance have a significant impact on the gaseous emissions resulting from the production. Inadequate practices lead especially to the deterioration of the climate impact of biogas production. Nitrogen emissions can also be high. The need for emission-reducing practices is significant regardless of plant size and feed materials. Gaseous emissions are most affected by the retention time of feed materials in the biogas reactor and the storage of digestate or its processed fractions. Proper maintenance of the facility, intact and durable structures, and minimizing the emission risks of biogas energy use are also important. The current steering instruments do not guarantee the sustainability of biogas production. The retention time needs regulation and both the environmental permitting and the emission calculation of the Sustainability Act instructions. Consideration of sustainable practices should also be required as part of various subsidies. The know-how to understand the entire biogas production chain and to increase its sustainability must be increased.